Bentheim County from the Beginning to the Present : The Legal Consequences of the German Revolutionary Year 1848 for the Kingdom of Hannover and Bentheim County  

The period following the Revolutionary year 1848 brought a series of laws to the Kingdom of Hannover, in whose design noticeably liberal ideas left their mark. Yet in 1848 the law of the modification of the Land constitution recognized - here the influence of the newly appointed minister Stüve showed itself - all communities as statutory corporations and assigned to them particular self-governing duties, such as the management of their assets, the election of - to be approved by the authorities - community officers and the regulation of internal community affairs including the police. The legislation of 1852 emphasized this, in which it called for the management of the communities to their own competent administration of their affairs.

The bailiwicks as sub-districts were done away with, and the police duties placed henceforth with the Amt or with the communities. The town ordinances were enacted in 1851 pursuant to this political reform. for the historical cities of the Grafschaft It meant the loss of their designation as cities; they were crossed off the list of independent cities, and for them, in a new chapter of community autonomy, the Rural Community Ordnance entered into force.

Through the law over the constitution of the courts of 1850, the administration of justice was separated from the administration. The designation district court still brought to mind the former regulatory unity. After the bureaucratic reorganization of 1852 the entire public administration of the lower courts in their district fell to the Amtern, insofar as it was not transferred to other authorities. In the jurisdiction of the Amter fell in addition to the hitherto sphere of authority also sovereignty matters, military and fiscal matters; the independent control for the ongoing commercial operations was emphasized through a compulsion and penal power, with which their directives were reinforced.

The law, also passed in 1852, over the Amtsvertretung positioned near the as yet bureaucratic structure of the Amt as administrative authority the indirectly elected representation in the form of the Amts assembly and enabled thereby the beginnings of the development of a municipal association, even if a decree of the Hannoverian Interior Ministry clarified, that the Amts district represented no regional authority.

With the establishment of 31 new Amtern the Hannoverian Kingdom counted nearly 45 independent cities, 175 Amter, of which Neuenhaus, with 18500 people was the largest Amt. The revised Amt order of 1859 reduced the number of Amter to 102, so that the average number of inhabitants of an administrative district amounted to 16000 people; the Bentheim Amt still comprised in 1880 according to the census only 10476 inhabitants, the Neuenhaus Amt in contrast 20520 people.
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